There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, but literature on recruiting adolescent couples is new and minimal. This paper describes the recruitment strategies used for Teen Connections, a longitudinal study that recruited mainly African American and Latino adolescent couples in romantic relationships living in New York City.
We collected data in Microsoft Access Couples for teens contacts documented the date each recruitment strategy was implemented, date each partner was enrolled, and amount of effort required to enroll participants. We identified individual and relationship characteristics from each partner's baseline survey.
Couples for teens contacts We found that relationship type and characteristics, language used in printed materials, parental consent, implementing a screener questionnaire, and gender of partner had Couples for teens contacts for enrollment in TC.
Couples studies are highly demanding but achievable with dedicated staff and access to a large number of youth. Research on sexual health and risk often relies on individual reports of dyadic events. Adolescent couples' studies may not be pursued because of recruitment Free fuck La city, but they can provide invaluable insight into relationship dynamics, characteristics etc.
Cluples people of color in America are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. We began a 5-year study of teenage couples called Teen Connections TCwhich required developing recruitment procedures that were effective, efficient and ethically sound.
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Couples for teens contacts In this paper, we report our recruitment experiences to provide a base of information upon Couples for teens contacts others can build. There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, 8 - 13 but research on adolescent couples is very new. To identify papers describing recruitment of both members of adolescent couples, we searched PsychInfo, Medline, and Eric using key words like adolescents, teenagers, couples, recruitment strategies.
We did identify a few Swingers Personals in Cullom that addressed couple recruitment of young adults. This paper will describe the recruitment strategies we implemented and their effects on couple enrollment.
Retention strategies will be discussed in a separate manuscript. Teen Connections was designed to document how different types, characteristics, and duration of sexual relationships were related to condom use in early to middle adolescence. We engaged in a two-step recruitment process for Teen Connections. The first step was to recruit youth into a screening study called the Teen Lifestyle Survey TLS a confidential, self-administered computer-assisted questionnaire.
TLS is the single point of entry that we use at our Center to recruit teens into several ongoing studies. We recruited teens aged for the TLS who had received any medical Couples for teens contacts in the last 18 months from any of seven general pediatric clinics affiliated with Montefiore Hospital in the Bronx, New York. Reading level was measured with the reading subtest of the Wide-Range Achievement Test-3 WRAT-319 administered Couples for teens contacts clinical interviewers when participants came to the Center.
At the completion of Couples for teens contacts reading subtest a raw score was calculated and converted to a grade score using the age specific norm tables of the WRAT If more than one partner was eligible, we allowed Couples for teens contacts teens to choose the partner they wanted to enroll.
The Teen Connections study design combined qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative study was a longitudinal panel study of adolescent couples individual partners at baseline; adolescents ranged in age from 14 to Participants completed quantitative surveys every 3 months for 12 months regardless of whether they remained a couple over time, a total of 5 time points.
We chose to follow up every three months to measure changes in relationships, particularly Horny women in Center Point, TX.
Couples for teens contacts
Data from each partner were collected independently tedns confidentially. For the TC baseline survey both partners were encouraged to come in Couples for teens contacts our Coupples together to assure concurrency of baseline data collection, but they could come in separately as long as the surveys were conducted within one week of each other. The TC qualitative study was a subgroup of 15 couples enrolled to participate in in-depth individual separate interviews mean length 75 minutes about their relationship.
These couples were selected based on the length and seriousness of their relationship, and they completed four one-on-one qualitative interviews four to six months apart whether they remained together or not. We recruited adolescents between the ages of from a computerized database used for medical record keeping and billing at Montefiore Medical Center.
Parents of youth identified through the database first received a letter in English and Spanish from the clinic where their child receives health care. The letter informed parents about the TLS screener and of their child's potential eligibility for participation in a further study. The letter told parents Couples for teens contacts, if they agree to the release of their child's name, address, telephone number, and date of birth, this information would be passed on fof the principal investigator and a TLS invitation would be mailed to their child.
If parents preferred Couples for teens contacts their child's contact information not be released to the study, they were given two ways to opt-out: Parents had 3 weeks from the date of the clinic letter mailing to opt their child out of receiving a TLS invitation.
Neither the parent nor teen at this point had to make a decision about study participation. The opt-out Cohples only requested permission from the parent Ladies wants sex MD Huntingtown 20639 allow the study to send their child a TLS invitation packet that provided more information about the study and the project consent form.
The database identified 7, adolescent patients that Couples for teens contacts age criteria, and clinics mailed their CCouples the study opt-out letter. Neither of these household types was contacted again. Excluding households whose letters were returned fkr parental opt-outs, 2, parents gave passive consent for their child to receive a TLS study invitation.
The mailed invitation explained that 79331 asian nude girl were being invited to participate in the TLS, a confidential, computerized survey that takes about 90 minutes to complete and asks questions about school, peers, Horny women in Hunting Valley, sexual behavior practices, and drug and alcohol use.
Printed materials also informed parents and teens that after completion of the TLS, Couples for teens contacts might Couples for teens contacts eligible for other projects. Five business days after the TLS invitation was mailed, study staff called teens to verify that they had received the printed materials and to answer any questions they or their parents may have had.
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Adolescents were given the option to come in any day during a six-week period to complete TLS. Surveys were conducted during after school hours, Saturdays, or by appointment to accommodate teens who Couples for teens contacts school or worked. The project consent form had to be contscts by both the teen Couples for teens contacts the teen's parent; parents were not required to accompany teens completing their survey. Data collection was conducted at our Center which is easily accessible by mass transportation.
Couples for teens contacts
Couples for teens contacts After teens completed the TLS, the project recruiter reviewed the quantitative data and identified index teens who met study Couples for teens contacts for Teen Connections: The project recruiter met with eligible index teens immediately following TLS administration to explain the TC study and to make a Coples determination of the eligibility of the index teens' partner.
Partner eligibility criteria were age no more than four years older than the index teen, lives in New York City, at least a 5 th grade reading level, and able to read, write, and speak English.
Reading level was measured with the reading subtest of the WRAT-3, 19 administered by clinical interviewers when referral partners came to the Center. Of the partners referred by eligible index teens, referral partners were ineligible during the contacte recruitment: Over half of the referral partners Couples for teens contacts deemed ineligible due to age.
Partner age criteria were imposed based on the goal of the study to study relationships in early and middle adolescence and ethical considerations. When enrolling youth in a study of sexual relationships, the issue of statutory rape must be addressed. In NYS, an individual is deemed incapable of sexual consent when he or she is less than 17 years of age.
Statutory rape is not a mandated reporting offense per the child abuse or maltreatment regulation of the New York State Office of Children and Family Services, nor did Couples for teens contacts have any legal responsibility to report it to authorities because it was illegal.
However, we decided not to enroll couples who met criteria for statutory rape, and we collected data on exclusion criteria to minimize the likelihood that we would learn of it by Couples for teens contacts collecting data on the age of partners Couples for teens contacts the TLS screener, and only asking during in-person recruitment if the partner he or she was referring was less than four years older. Index teens with partner s who were 4 or more years older were excluded from being invited to enroll in Teen Connections.
Because their referral partner was ineligible, we Couples for teens contacts index teens. The remaining index teens were told about Teen Connections and our interest in learning more about different types of adolescent relationships.
Teens were also informed that in order to participate in TC, their referral partner would have to agree to participate as well. We believed that requiring parental consent would increase study refusals by couples who were in private relationships, which would increase the risk of sample bias, with teens in public relationships more likely to participate.
However, this approach introduced different barriers to recruitment and we changed study requirements to require parental consent. The rationale for changing from a waiver to a parental consent process will be discussed later in the manuscript.
When enrolling couples we used a brokering plus invitation strategy coupled with a corecruitment approach similar to those used with adult couples. In order to avoid inadvertent disclosure of the relationship, neither packet stated that TC was a study for sexually active couples in romantic relationships.
The printed materials were also sent to Couples for teens contacts household to be reviewed by parents and teens. It stated that the teen was being referred Couples for teens contacts a project Couples for teens contacts Teen Connections, a research study interested in learning about different types of teen relationships, and that the adolescent had been referred by another teen to participate.
The project recruiter encouraged index teens to invite the person he or she was referring into TC via telephone from the study office. Printed materials mailed to the partner's home informed the partner that data will be collected independently and confidentially at our office, and that both teens will remain in the follow-up study even if they can no longer come Free sex site Fishkill together.
Couple partners were asked to come in within one week Couples for teens contacts each other to assure that the data were collected concurrently.
Participant age varied by gender with boys averaging one year older than girls Length of relationship was reported by boys as one and a half months longer on average than girls reported 1.
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Couples for teens contacts We systematically studied how various recruitment strategies affected enrollment of adolescent couples. We collected data in Microsoft Access and documented the date each new enrollment strategy cotnacts implemented. We also documented the questions and comments of youth during in-person recruitment sessions to identify areas of concern for feens partners and Couples for teens contacts, and to better understand which printed materials were effective and which needed to be revised to minimize misconceptions about study requirements.
We used both passive and active recruitment strategies with both index and referral partners. Study staff only contacted index and referral partners who provided their respective contact information directly to staff.
Passive recruitment is defined M Davenport teens sex activities that do not involve in-person conversation, and focus Couplrs on written materials that are clear, appealing to Couples for teens contacts target-group and powerful. We needed to rely on printed material at several strategic points: Written materials always prominently displayed the study logo, Couples for teens contacts colorful and nonthreatening, were vetted by youth teen participants in pre-study focus groups and a pilot.
Packets included informational flyers and a formal letter on Center letterhead. Passive recruitment strategies also included sending email or text messaging reminders to partners to encourage them to come in to complete their baseline interview.
Active recruitment is defined by person-to-person cpntacts, either by telephone or in person. Telephone contact was most common and most important, and usually involved calling participants at home or on a cell phone to answer questions they or their parents had; to explain the importance of the study; to assure the confidentiality of the Mwm looking for what is lost collection; and to assist partners to schedule their surveys.
Described below are logistical field challenges and engagement strategies that were implemented to recruit couples during the enrollment phase of the TC study.
The researchers have extensive experience recruiting children and adolescents for several clinical trials, but enrollment of teen couples was more challenging than anticipated. Our study protocol stipulated for TLS and TC that no more Couples for teens contacts four calls per household should be made without response from the teen or parent.
Recruiters, however, provided participants with as many survey reminders or project inquiry call backs as requested. Couples for teens contacts average, participants invited to complete the TLS were contacted contcats times by telephone prior to completing the TLS data collection.
On average, 4 out of the 6 calls were either participant-requested reminder calls or calls from staff to reschedule a missed survey appointment. We made a total of Couples for teens contacts, calls to youth, and an additional 3, calls to households that had a no answer, wrong or disconnected number for a total of 11, calls conducted during the TLS screener phase of the study. During the TC enrollment phase, the recruiter averaged 11 calls per teems couple.Free Sex Chat Near Mukilteo Ms
Couples for teens contacts average, 2 calls were made to each partner for recruitment purposes the additional calls were couple requested. We found that most couples utilize the recruiter as a broker between the partners to schedule when they would come to the Center to complete the survey and to assist when a survey appointment had to be rescheduled.